## Analog Clock

- Details
- Category: Apps
- Published on Friday, 04 January 2013 07:38
- Written by Super User
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Hello friends,

In the previous tutorials of graphical lcd, we have learnt about the basic primitive and custom design functions. So drawing an analog clock on graphical lcd is a bit more advanced project. So it’s really exciting to do this project and for this we have to use a simple mathematical calculation and some programming techniques.

## A GLCD Clock using ATmega32 |

## Introduction:

Before going to clock design, we have to first understand its fundamentals. A clock has three hands i.e. hour, minute and second. For each hand, we have to include separate calculations but we have to also take care about the dependency of one hand upon another. That we will discuss in the later tutorials. For user’s simplicity, we have already designed a library including all functions suitable at user level. Now we will discuss the basic concept of the calculation of positioning the hands in a clock according to user level input.

## showing the layout of a clock on graphical lcd |

## Explaining the Calculation part:

As previously mentioned, there is some mathematical and trigonometric calculation involved which will decide the position of the three hands on the clock according the user level input. So basically we have to decide the coordinate of the hands so that we will draw them properly. Lets come to some basic trigonometric formula for x-coordinate and y-coordinate calculation.

**x-coordinate=radius * cos(angle)****y-coordinate= radius * sin(angle)**

Angle should be in radians

radius will be predefined in the library for three different hands.

From above formula, we can decide the position of hands in pixel coordinates. But here we have to first calculate the angle and for there are different angles for three different hands. Here the angle will be measured in radian.

## showing the reference line for the calculation |

## Diagram showing the hand position and its corresponding coordinates |

## How to calculate angle

This is also not a big task until you are clear about the angle of rotation of the three hands. Now a simple formula will teach us how to decide the angle according to the user input values.

**Angle-calculated (in degree)= (angle of rotation/no of total division it covers) * (no of division at which it is currently residing)**

But as suggested in the picture, we have to calculate the actual angle from reference line.

So, actual-angle= 90- (angle-calculated)

To use the calculated actual-angle in calculation, we will properly convert it into radians.

## Diagram showing the different calculated angles of a hand |

**Example:**

For hour hand, it covers 360 degree in one rotation and at mean time it covers 12 divisions. So when at 3 o’clock, it’s angle will be

(360/12)* 3= 90 degree

So actual angle w.r.t. reference line= 90-(angle-calculated) =90-90=0 degree

By taking this concept of angle calculation, we can also do the same for minute and second hand.

## Explaining the library function:

For user’s simplicity, we have already designed a library including all functions suitable at user level

**void Draw_clock(uint16_t hr, uint16_t min,unit16_t sec);**

We can draw the clock at the centre position(64,32) by using this function. So the input parameters will be hour, minute and second in two digit format. We have designed it according to our day to day practical situations.

Example:

** void Draw_clock(20,10,15); **

So the above will draw the clock according to the 24 hours time format. That means the time will be displayed as 08:10:10 and the clock hands positions will be adjusted accordingly.

## diagram showing the program output |

## Program

```
```*/*******************************************************************************
*GLCD Analog Clock Demo.*
* This demo shows how to draw an analog clock face with hour,*
* min & sec hands.*
* Visit*
*http://www.extremeelectronics.co.in for more details.*
*Author*
* Rishikesh Tripathy*
*Copyright 2008-2011 *
*eXtreme Electronics, India*
*All rights reserved.*
****************************************************************************/*
#include <avr/io.h>
#include <util/delay.h>
#include <gfx.h>
*//include our already created header file for user level simplicity*
#include "clock.h"
**int** main(**void**)
{
*//initialize the graphical lcd*
GFXInit();
*//write the function for drawing the clock*
Draw_clock(20,10,15);
*//update the graphical lcd*
GFXUpdate();
*//wait forever*
**while**(1)
{
}
}

## Hardware

The hardware is our **GLCD Development board** but you can also make the circuit at home for that consult the following tutorial.

so with this tutorial, part-1 of the total series is completed. in the next part we will discuss, design of custom clock at user level. Will will be adding a RTC Module for time keeping purpose and also adding support for setting time using the push buttons.

## Software

The program can be complied using AVR-Studio 4 (avr-gcc project), for a guide on installing AVR Studio and WinAVR please see the following tutorial.

The program requires the ProGFX graphic driver, please consult the following for more info

Finally the project needs the **Clock Face Drawing library** contained in the following files :-

*clock.c***cloc****k.h**

Copy both the files to your project folder and add * clock.c* to your AVR Studio Project. See image below.

**Please note that add .c in Source File section and .h file to header file sections only.**

## Video

Finally we are giving away the **HEX code** ready to download to the GLCD Board and test the working quickly.